(upbeat music) (applause) - thank you very much. an amazing translation,and i appreciate very much. you know, in spanish i evenbelieve some of those lies. (audience laughs) diana, stay here just for a second. you know, things don'thappen without people who really, really work hard and diana
has been not pestering me,but keeping me informed for weeks and weeks because she believes in this institution, and shebelieves in you as students, and i know that she has given her time, but she's given it from her heart, so we have a little ceremony at central that we make you oneof us, and now you are officially one of us. well we're going to get rock and rolling.
i have way too muchinformation to give you so some of 'em i talk fast,some of 'em i shorten up, but i truly want to tell youthat before i get started, i have to give thanks not only to diana, but to you know, all of the students here. the staff, the faculty, your president who you know from the top downreally makes things things generate and vibrate for your good and for your futureand for your education.
also, diversity student center,we've acknowledged that. that is great stuff that you're doing and we really appreciate it. i remember i was an eopstudent back in the day so we were working onstone tablets at that time, and it's because of them people like her and diana, that i'm a phd now because i could barely even writewhen i started college, and i was helped all along the way
and i want you to remember that so as you move up, reach back and lift. bring people with you, okay? remember that, rememberwhere you came from. always helps, so the lasa, latin american studentassociation, you folks rock. tons of work, you're just enthusiastic. i can feel that enthusiasmand you do a great job. associated students of edmonds.
cristina, thank you somuch for your support. i really, really appreciate it. it doesn't happen without leadership and without people like you to do that, and thank you so very, very much. keep up the good work, keep up the job. there's next year, andyou'll make it even better. you'll probably even get a better speaker, and again diana, gustos.
so, you know, what we're goingto talk about is our history, our legacy, and our future,but before we get started there's a great woman that iwant everybody to know about. her name is dolores huerta, and dolores started in the '50s and the'60s alongside cesar chavez and she's a woman, she's a great american. she's a great person. she's a hard worker,and it came out in her, in everything that she did.
she gave her entirelife energy to promoting and helping latinos and latinas get for, especially migrant farm workers, and it was dolores who saidthrough that microphone that, megaphone that you see her holding. in the 1960s she said, essentially, don't close your eyes andears because we are here. we being latinos and latinas, okay? and that was sort of like a cry out to
you know include us, and understand that we're not only big, but growing. and who are we? we are a very large population. latinos and latinas arethe largest minority group in the state of washington. we are the largest in the united states, and we are now getting even larger, so we're also very young.
campuses like this area reflection of that. you folks are gonna be our future. we'll talk a little bit of that later. but, like i said, we're growing, and by 2060 imagine that. one out of every three people walking on the boulevards and the streets and driving down the streets or whatever will be latinos and latinas.
this is, this is wake up information and you wake up, or understand this, or you won't be part of the future. so, it's also importantto know that the majority in the united statesare of mexican descent. that is not to forget ourfriends from puerto rico, our friends from the dominicanrepublic, from el salvador, from wherever, from chile,south america, central america. 22 spanish speakingcountries in the world,
we all contribute hopefullytogether as a population. and so that's who we are,sort of in a nutshell, and i bring this to you because as i talk about the history our forgotten history we can never forget that that our history isreally part of our future. but before we get intothat, i have a late breaking commercial announcement,rogelio, where are you? daniela, where are you?
lasa, where are you? okay. we have a commercial announcement here brought to you by the cinco de mayo, did we lose our lasa people? - we lost everyone from lasa. - then daniela and you are it. okay, i've asked the lasafolks to come down here. this is a spoof, so don't think that
i actually believe this is the case. you gonna wait for methere a second, rogelio? - yes sir. - because i mean... now i want you to know, rogelio, this is what's called big hat game. - big hat game. - yeah. (speaks spanish)
- okay. - so if you got the biggest hat in the room, you're it, okay? and now i'm here looking really stupid and i want you to knowhow stupid i really feel. but there's a reason for this 'cause we're going to make a point,and rogelio and his group is gonna also make it with you. there's a microphone overthere if you want to talk,
but essentially before you do that, i want to tell you that this commercial that rogelio's going to talk about, is brought to you by alcoholic beverage companies, can't live and drink without them. it's brought to you by salsa, and chips and it's also brought toyou by every bar and cantina in the state of washington,gift card companies,
and every gringo that wantsto be a mexican for the day! you got it, it's yours rogelio. - is this-- - i think this one works over here. - this one, okay hi everyone. hola bienvenidos. we have a small joke for you. why do mexicans eat tamales on christmas? anyone?
exactly, exacto no? so they have something to unwrap. (chuckles) bueno. - [antonio] that's not funny. - i didn't think you weregonna laugh, i'm sorry. no, no, but feel free to laugh. it's a spoof, so there are sorry there we go.
there are a lot of misconceptionsabout latino culture. in fact, tamales are abundant throughout the year. however, they take avery long time to make. how mexican mothers know,or latina moms know. they're very time consuming, very tedious. but someone who doesn't love you wouldn't take the timeto make them for you. they are a small symbol of our gratitude
and appreciation for our families. you agree with me. lots of aspects of latino culture, mexican, south american, seemvery mockable at first glance. there are a lot of misconceptions and misunderstandings about 'em. but once you get down into the details, into the symbolism ofwhat we do and how we are. you realize that there'sa lot of beauty within it.
latino culture is verybeautiful, like all cultures of the world, it's verybeautiful in its own way. so we are here today, dr. antonio sanchez thank you very much for coming. we are here to try to give an overview of whatlatino culture is today. thank you all for being here today. - okay, we're gonna doa second part of this. we're gonna, this isour commercial break now
before i give theinformation about our history and tc the great is gonnaqueue up a video for us. short one, it's about aminute and 43 seconds. it's gonna tell you not whatto do on the cinco de mayo. thank you daniela, thank you rogelio. lasa rocks, you guys are great. - happy cinco de mayo,who's ready to fiesta? cuchi cuchi! - what the--
(spanish music) - i love cinco de mayo. it's my favorite holiday. - cinco de drinko, am i right? - oh yeah. - yes i am. - is that when spain freed your people? - i heard that it was atequila marketing scam. - come to my bachelorette party,
we're calling it cinco de becky-o. i'm picking out sombrerosthat have veils on them. - happy cinco de drinko. - oh, but i'm indian. - this isn't offensive, myboyfriend's half mexican. - encantar, mi amor. - today we are all mexican. - that's when christophercolumbus discovered mexico, right? - why are mexicans sosensitive about this?
(moaning) - so is it like your independence day? - no it's when we beat the french. - and then got drunk right? no? - what are you guysdoing for cinco de mayo? it's one of my favorite holidays. - nothing really, we're just hanging. - sheesh, i'm more mexican than you guys.
- does he know we're not mexican? (clears throat) - mrs. iglesias? - [all] surprise! - cinco de becky was uber loca. - well, i hope you enjoyed that spoof. thanks, thanks, am i gonna sing too? i'll do that.
but i used to just reallygo crazy about cinco de mayo so i decided to do a little research on it and i, diana has kindly made copies of an article iwrote on the cinco de mayo. if you get a chance, read it. i think it'll rock youabout what you understand about cinco de mayo and someof the information in that is new information, stuff that'snever been published before. it's what you callknuckle busting research
and it really sheds light on what i'm going to tell you very quicklywhy we should celebrate. first of all, how in theworld did it ever get hijacked by salsa, chips, andbeer and by dancing chihuahuas and by mexican sombreroson people that probably, like me, shouldn't wearthem because it does nothing good for us other thanto hide my baldness, but we really asked the question is whose cinco de mayo party is it anyway?
and what i'm going to tellyou is i think it's all of our time to celebrate, and the other thing i'm going to punctuate, first of all, when you go to mexico thereare not cinco de mayo parties. you know in mexico it's nota national holiday okay? it's just sparsely recognizedprobably in the town of puebla and so mexicans come here and they look at this with bewilderment and say what the heck is going onwith this cinco de mayo?
and so we'll talk a little bit about, but the real cinco de mayodeserves to be highlighted and that was in 1862 france invades mexico under the auspices ofpaying a debt they owed. the debt was made because mexico helped in the war of 1848, the unjust war, when one half of mexicowas stolen from mexico and made part of the united states, okay? mexico was helping finance part of that
and they were in debt and they, you know, mexico was just getting rocking after that and juststarting to get moving, so france invades, butit was a false invasion in the sense of, they really didn't come to collect the debt. what they came there for was to essentially be part of a grander plan. i'll talk about that in just a second,
but what i wanted to say that on that day of cinco de mayo in1862 8,000 french troops descended upon the area of puebla. puebla was on the way to mexico city and had napoleon iii andhis french foreign legion, okay, made it to mexico. would have been a very, very bad thing for mexico which in turn it wants. but why is such a bigdeal, the cinco de mayo?
they of course they won the battle. eventually they lost the war. okay? but why is it a big deal? first of all the french foreign legion hadn't been beat in five decades and it was beaten by anarmy one half its size with relatively no modernequipment whatsoever and they did it in avery, very important way.
they did it because they hadganas, they had the will. they had the drive, theybelieved in themselves, they believed in mexico, andthey believed in the cause. keep those words in yourmind as we move forward for this lecture because that will be part of a theme that we talk about. so they kicked the french'sbutts in 1862, big news, and so they didn't have twitter. they didn't have
internet, obviously, in 1862, so what did they do? they broadcast it to the newspapers and it took a long time for the newspapers to broadcast the battleof 1862, the cinco de mayo battle that was so famousand so hard fought after. and the news got up tocalifornia and to oregon and to arizona about the battle, and so these communitiesorganized patriotic clubs
so that they couldraise money to send back to mexico to fight off the french, okay? california at that time in 1848, i said before been rippedout of the soul of mexico. it was now part of the united states, but these communities feltvery much allegiance to mexico. and so what happened after that was mexico essentially gets invaded. they win the battle of cinco de mayo,
they lose the war and french puppet, frenchgovernment emperor napoleon, emperor, excuse me, maximilian, is installed as the emperor of mexico. that lasts for a few years. the funds are cut off from france, he doesn't think it's appropriate, but here's the real storywhy we should celebrate that because if it wasn't forthe battle of cinco de mayo,
and if it wasn't for mexicanbravery, ganas, will, drive, determination to kickthe french out of mexico, napoleon iii had a grand plan. he was going to invade mexico, install his monarchy in mexico, and from mexico in 1862,is there anybody here who is a student ofhistory or who remembers what's going on in 1862in the united states? civil war, good.
and the civil war, unitedstates was just pulled apart at that time, and it was weak. and so napoleon iii wasthinking weak united states. i go through mexico,establish my monarchy, i support the slave trade states and then it will be part of my monarchy, part of under my control,under french control, okay? and we would be a slaveholding country and it would look very different.
so thank you mexico. thank you cinco de mayobatalla because that is a really, really importantpoint that is missed. it is an american celebrationbecause they helped us, okay? but now that doesn'texplain, i mentioned these patriotic groups andback 1900, 1890, 1900. these sort of just fizzled out. there's some evidence that somebody gave, started using the cinco de mayo but
in it was basically deadby the 1930s and '40s. didn't exist, cinco de mayo,you know people knew about it. they knew about it in mexico,but it wasn't a fiesta, it wasn't a time to gather,it wasn't patriotism or anything like that. but in the 1960s, chicanos and chicanas, you may have never heard that word before, but if you haven't, that'swho we named ourselves. latinos and latinas, weweren't latinos and latinas.
you want to know why? because latino and latina was a word that was made up for thecensus by the u.s. government. it was a word now made upby the record companies so they could have a labelthat was convenient to them and we said no, not only didwe say no, we said hell no. somos chicanos, we cameup with our own word, our own definition, ourown self identification and also what we didup as part of the 1960s
as part of that self identificationwe very much believed that the cinco de mayo was our opportunity to celebrate who we werebecause it had the same values. we were underdogs. the cinco de mayosoldiers said si se puede, we said si se puede. the underdogs can win,preserve, and not back down. that's who we believed wewere, the latinos and latinas, the chicanos and the chicanas in the 1960s
and we raise this flag, andyou are standing on the backs of all of these people in the 1960s and '70s who stood up at that time. it was not easy. it was very, very difficult. people gave their lives,risked their lives and lost their lives so wecould have scholarships. so we could have people on campus like cristina and dr.hernandez and others.
so it was a symbolic source ofpride and self determination and all classes united. so how did it get the cinco de mayo get from the point wherethe chicanos and chicanas, latinos and latinas in the 1960s, celebrating for us our source of pride, how did it get such atwisted turn to today where we have dancingchihuahuas, and sombreros and you drink yourself 'til you drop,
and you know i mean, i havenothing against alcohol. i have nothing againstchihuahuas, i happen to own one or it owns me or something like that. and i probably wouldn'tmind having a drink with any of those young ladies there. however, since i'm a gameless old fool i cannot have any ofthat, but the point being this transformationoccurred and it was a really important transformation,and it's what i want
you to remember, okay? i want you to remember the transformation that occurred from the1960s and the chicanos and the chicanas who made this a holiday, to today okay? and what happened was the coors company was boycotted by thechicanos and chicanas people 'cause they were racist and i'm saying this was all stuff written.
i'm not making it up, i'm not being a, pushing the, how do yousay, the ethnic card. they were actually racistsin the coors company and it was demonstrated so we boycotted. we brought them to their knees. don't buy coors beer. coors company, reallysmart, marketing guys said okay you're not buyingcoors, our sales have gone down significantly,we will give you money
so that you can have social programs so that if you need to havecelebrations or whatever, and they said by the way, cinco de mayo is a really interestingcelebration, madam chicana. well we think that's areally important holiday. no, they had done their research. there is not a singleholiday between easter and memorial day and they,they needed beer sales. so what do they do?
they help the chicanosand chicanas in the 1960s, but they help themselves. so essentially we get to herebecause american marketing geniuses grabbed onto this dateand we sold salsa and beer. but you know when thatrevolution was really over? 1980, 'cause in 1980 in the united states more salsa was sold than ketchup. game over. okay, so.
now we're getting to the history part. the why i'm here, okay? and we're gonna crunch through this and i'm hopefully gonna makeit as interesting as possible. this is history, but thisis all of our history and i don't want you to forget that okay? but our history really is not known and appreciated very much, and it's, you're gonna feel thatmore and see that more
when we go through someof this and you say god, is that really the truth? our history really is oftendefined by a caricature and you saw rogelio and you saw daniela get up here as a caricature. but that caricature was justto slap you and remind you this is me, but this is not me. i love the sombrero becausethe sombrero is part of mexican history and part of mexican pride,
but it's not to laugh at and our mothers that make us our tamalesare not to be laughed at. because we believe inwho we are and we believe in our future not defined by other people on the outside trying to bewannabe pancho villas, okay? and this immigration photo is a reminder. that's really not what it's all about. that's not who we are. we are immigrants andthose people that are
sitting their butts on a hard ground because they wanted to make abetter future for their family are no different than thepeople that came across in the mayflower to make a life better for themselves and their family. that's what america is all about. it's not having people fascists,wannabes, in that sense to tell us that the peoplewho cross that border from mexico into the unitedstates are criminals,
that they're drug possessors,all of them are drug sellers, all of them or rapists. and if you see that,and if you believe it, believe in it in yourself andyou believe in who you are as a latino or latina, oran american, doesn't matter, you should stand up against that stuff. so today we're gonna learn a little bit about latino history. some of the stuff you probably have
never heard before, okay? and so, but before we do thisi gave you a piece of paper. you have it, gonna raise it. got that piece of paper i gave you, reach in and get that. we have a little exercise. there'll be a test on this by the way. is that right diana? might have to take backthe salsa and the chips.
everybody have that paper? hold it up. okay, now i want you to read, that's not the paper, the one that has finished file, there you go. little slip of paperthat says finished file. if you don't have one... read it and then pass it tosomebody who doesn't have it. okay read that sentence that's on there.
everybody's reading that sentence? everybody but cristinacan read it because... you got the pre-test and she passed. well i heard that the students here at edmonds community college were above average andmost of them brilliant. i know you're handsome and beautiful, but that's aside. great college, great education,
so i want you to count the fs. can you count the fs very quickly? how many of you, you ready? everybody read it? how many of you spotted three fs? raise your hand so i can see you. one, three fs. how many four fs? how many spotted five, five fs?
one, two, three. how many spotted six fs? wow, okay, the rest of you. everybody was given the same card. the same thing to read. there are six fs in that statement, okay? but we're taught, okay? we are taught, by the waythis is the most people i've ever gotten.
i've never done it in color,but it's the most people that i've ever gotten that there's six fs, so you guys obviouslyare very astute readers. i happen to think it'sbecause most of you, many of you are bilingual,and that changes you having to look at ita little bit differently. but the point being isthose of you that only saw three fs, there's nothing wrong with that. i read it the first time,i only got three fs okay?
and some people get five fs, but six fs it's because we're taught in a certain way to see things, okay? we see and profile thingsbecause we're taught certain things and we aretaught in the united states that latinos and latinas are less than. we are taught that we're criminals and reinforced by major politicians. we're taught that we're drug dealers,
we're taught that we'renot able to achieve, and we're given this stigmafrom the time we're born and we get into school andwe're beat across the head about this stuff andit is not good because we become one of the hidden fs, or one of the fs you find, you know, a freaking little mexican. is that our label? no, that's not who we want tobe or who we should ever be,
and we should never be hidden. we should be part of thehistory and the heritage of this entire continent, and that's what this presentation is all about. so history really does makes a difference. it gives you meaning anda place of belonging. it gives you a place to put your feet and to say this is who i am, okay? and it shows you your past,but like i said before
it also shows you your future. so what do we know aboutwashington state history? here's another test. there's too many tests today, but this is the second and last test. the test is who are the first people to discover washington state? eh, let's think about that. who were the next people todiscover washington state?
well if anybody identifiedthat the native americans, the first people were here,this is homeland security by the way, 1492 theystarted, madder than hell. the first people here were the indios, let's never, never, neverever forget that okay? this was their land,this was their territory, but who were the next group of people to come into washington state? were it english pilgrims?
you know we celebratethanksgiving in washington state. was it the english pilgrims? could it be lewis and clark? you always hear about lewis and clark. maybe they were the secondgroup to come after the indians and quote unquote discover or encounter washington state huh? and there they are, there we go. washington state, it's ours.
or was it the american pioneers? coming in the coveredwagon, the woman with a, you know, bonnet, beautifulbonnet and holding the child to her bosomand there is her husband with a beard and they'regoing that covered wagon. did they discover orencounter washington state? or the next ones, or was itfrench explorers, belarus? could it have beenshakira, or jennifer lopez? i don't know.
could it have been pitbull or juanes? or could it been spanishand mexican explorers? how dare you dr. sanchez tell us it could be the spanish were here first? absolutely. so we're going to anchor our presentation, historically, by talking about the first non-native americans thatwere in washington state and i have a little pointerhere thanks to tc who's amazing.
see that mountain right there? look familiar? mount baker? anybody ever heard of mount baker? you've heard of mount baker, good. really that's mount roselia. because it was first named by the spanish and mexican explorers that were here, and then summarilywiped out of our history
shortly thereafter, okay? mount roselia, so if you want to really impress your girlfriend or boyfriend or your mother or your abuelita, or make some money at a bar? you take that littlething with fs with you and do the test, you'llmake some money off that, or second tell them seethat mountain over there? that is mount roselia.
and mount roselia is important because really it was named by ourpeople, and then changed okay? so latinos first came in1774, two years before the bell rang givingfreedom to the united states for the american revolutionthat happened in 1776. two years before that, themexicanos were already here. they're going like y que? you know, we're here i meanyou know this is our country and they claim it for mexico and spain.
so the building, the black box theater which is a wonderful space andwe're very glad to have that and have people like tcworking and helping us out. okay, great facility. but let's get real about it. the land this was built on belonged to spain and mexico until 1819. you don't see this inyour history books okay? and you know when i was talking,
lecturing about this youknow a long time ago, they said well dr. sanchez we have no proof that the spanish were ever claimed this land in 1774 so how could they be the first? and i would say sabes que? do your research. in 1992 a map was discovered at the u.s. congressional library okay?
and that map definitively showed that in 1774 juan perez cameand officially claimed this. from that point forward, andremember that date, 1774, the world changed, and so why and this kind of is a kind of ordering, this is how far juan perez, the yellow, don't payattention to the yellow one 'cause the captain of thatboat went crazy and died and they had to bring him back,
but juan perez made it all theway to valdez, valdez, alaska it's how you hear it,an incredible journey. this is one of our greatestmaritime heroes okay? boat filled with indians andmexicanos and mestizos, okay? and this boat twice the size of my car with no gps, okay? nothing, no maps, nobodyhad ever sailed here before, and they took on one of the most difficult and dangerous routes to getto the pacific northwest
and they came here, and they claimed it. these are heroes, folks. they sailed form san blasmexico where the base was, but they didn't just, it wasn't just ships coming that was wood. they were filled with people, okay? incredible people and thosepeople brought their culture, they brought their history,and they brought their food. mm, tamales, and they brought technology
and they brought religionand they brought huge changes and two freight trainsor two ships collide, the native american and thenon-native american at that time the espanoles and los mexicanos okay? the world was foreverchanged after that point. but why do we not hearof mozino, one of the greatest scientists in theworld at that time, wrote a treatise called the noticias de nunca. beautiful thing, but wedon't hear about that.
we don't hear about the sailing. we don't hear about perezand heceta, bodega, y quadra, arteaga, martinez, haro,fidalgo, quimper, eliza who discovered puget sound. quimper who establishedthe first settlement, malaspina, amazing storywhich i won't go into. bustamante, galiano, who later on went to become a heroin the battle of trafalgar and lost his head with a cannonball.
valdes. has anybody, raise your hand if you've heard of camano island. man, lots of hands go up, camano island. how many of you know that camano island is named after a spanish explorer who came to the pacificnorthwest whose name was caamano? do they tell you that in history? do you see a plaque youcome in to camano island
and they tell you mm,this was first discovered and named by the spanishand his name was caamano? no way. our history is so obliterated, so lost, it's like us, like those fs. we're lost, we're lost, but you are gonna un-lose us, okay? so, dr. sanchez, your okay, they're here first.
but, they're not here now are they and they didn't leave anything, that's why we don't talk about them and that's why they'renot in the history books. right dr. sanchez. not. absolutely not. what is this legacy of thesefirst spanish and mexican, you think johnny appleseed brought them,
the manzanas, brought theapples to washington state? hell no. it was juanito appleseed who came with the spanish explorers who broughtapples, who brought peas, who brought potatoes, who brought onions. you know, folks who brought wheat. two of the biggest, our most important, symbolic agricultural products in the state of washington apples and wheat.
i don't think manzanas andpeas, that's our history. no, this is all of our history. because we have to tell the truth. we have to tell it like it is. and that is like it is. and it's really important to know they came as scientists. they didn't come as conquistadores. they came to learn and understand.
they came under strict rules by the king of spain at that time. they brought the first wine. now we are be known for wine, my goodness. the first livestock, give me a break. the first iron, whichwas highly sought after. there's no iron found in puget sound or in washington state until that time. they brought the first bricks
and the first oven to make thebricks that were made here. they recorded the native languages and one of the reasons we still have the native languages and songs et cetera is because of those firstscientists that sailed on those 46 connoitersof the pacific northwest that they came here from san blas, mexico. and they brought christianityand they were the first traders, our firstinternational trade,
trade's a big deal. now we got people going to china and they want to trade with china. okay, that's good, let'strade with mexico too. the first non-native settlementwest of san francisco was fort nunez gaona in neah bay washington. amazing place. if you ever have a chance takeyour mother for mother's day, take your girlfriend for atour, take your boyfriend.
whatever it takes, goto neah bay washington. see this remote part of washington state and it will, i think it's a life changer. you'll see the beauty of that area and that's where the spanishset their first settlement up. that's what it looks like today. this is a fort that i helped found. that was a good chunk ofmy life in that monument, but that monument, inside ofit, i worked with dr. pelaya
who out of spain and herand i crafted the history. you can read it all on the inside, and the native americans, the first people from the macah tribe,from the diah tribe also wrote their history andwe brought them together. amazing experience. i have to tell you, thatwas a moment in my life when we inaugurated that,17 eagles flying above us. we don't know how they got there,
and the native elders were totally in awe. so, that's our history,but let me give you a little small fact, whichis really a big fact. and that is, if it wasn't for the spanish and the mexicans coming here in 1774, we would be talking like that eh? and we would be drinking molson beer and be doing a lot of ice hockey eh? we would be in canada.
eh, well dr. sanchezwhat do you mean we'd be. (grumbles) what happened was that in 1774 the spanish traded a silver spoon to the native americans, the first peoples. didn't think much of it. what happens? spain leaves, united stateswants its territory, okay. england wants thisterritory for canada, okay?
and there's a hugediplomatic battle, fight. and somebody says aha,we know that the spanish were here first because captain cook in his diary shows that he has the spoon. captain cook came after the spanish, and they find the spoon, they raise it up, they say this is spanish claimto the pacific northwest. and that single spoon made a difference from the line being drawn where it is now,
or it would have beenin the columbia river. had it been in the columbia river, it'd be jolly good fun. but, spanish and mexicans changed forever the history of the statethrough that single spoon. 1819, and i'm gonna kind ofclip through this because but it walks you through our history. it ends in 1819, it's nolonger part of mexico or spain. new spain.
it becomes part of the oregon territory and you think, well, whathappens to the mexicans? what happens to the mexicans? do they just disappear? no, because it was the mexicans that after the gold rush in california or during the gold rush, huge opportunity and they owned the mules. the mules were the of the time.
they brought commerce into this area. they marked it, the line between canada and the united states is done by arrieros. these are brave people. again, no gps. they set the firsttrails which became i-5, highway 99, et cetera thatwere done by mexican arrieros. and each one of those mules right there were worth a fortune, andit was only the mexicanos
that knew how to pack them. that was a true art. so the mexican revolution comes. marching quickly through our history. mexican rev, another push of mexicanos leave mexico to escape avery, very tough revolution. okay, and some of them comeinto the pacific northwest. and they come early on, they come to help build the railroads,
help work in the forest,help build our economy and agriculture, and other things okay? oop, time out. got the migra. anyone know what the migra is? everybody knows what the migra is. immigration. border patrol okay? border patrol, there was no really
marked border until 1924 okay? and so the border patrolcomes in what happens is that now it changes who we are. the word illegal isborn because now we have a border patrol and it'sone side or the other. this is yours, mexico, and this is not yours and you cannot cross the border unless we tell you to. mother may i?
eh, so they invent, it'sright there at that point it's created that divisionwhich i call a scar. let's move forward a little bit past that and we go into the1930s and i have friends whose family because ofthe great depression, hopefully you've read or heard about the great depression in1930s, and at that time, you were, there were signs in some towns mexicans keep going, we can'teven take care of our own.
and they'd bus mexicansback into mexico one by one. or all by busload, or whatever, okay? get out of the united states,we don't want you anymore, we don't need you anymore,thanks for your help, adios. fast forward, they kicked the mexicans out because of the depression,and what happens? world war ii. in a war economy, what do we need? we need labor, we need workers
and what do they look to? by golly, women. women are finally, before, before the war they couldnever be police officers. they could never be welders, they could never be shipyard workers, they could never be,it was rare, whatever. women were kept apartand not let participate as a full citizen of the united states
and then world war ii comes and we hear of something calledrosie the riveter okay? that's great, i applaud that, i think this is absolutely great, but why don't we ever talk about benito the bracero? that came from mexico,1,500, 1,540 braceros coming directly from mexico as a program during world war ii to save our crops. i have 1,400 there butthe real number is 1,540.
1,540, and so thisprogram which was set up because they now love mexicans. they love 'em so much they publish manuals on safety in spanish, imagine that. how to pick an apple. pick the apple, don't eat the apple, don't fall off the ladder,whatever they said okay? but it was all in spanish. imaginate?
today, unthinkable, okay? and so, because they were herethey helped save our crop, but we need to know who these people were. these men were, coming from mexico and they were the luckyones, they got a job okay? very difficult. erasmo gamboa, professor outof university of washington has written extensively about this. he's my absolute mentor on this stuff,
and read his book, or his books. he just published a new one. and so these braceros come and they help build our agricultural economy. what would we have done without it? but they came also frommexico as patriots. they believed in the wareffort, and they believed they were helping for the war effort. they came to work on the railroad.
they came as cristina toldme in her family during that time worked in the areas of michigan in different positions, probably not part of the bracero program, i don't think so. but as laborers, but they loved us all now 'cause they needed us. they worked and there'ssomething a short hoe. those are illegal now by the way. you can't do any of that that way now.
use those short hoes. they came and they toiledand they worked so hard. they were processed, andthe way they were processed they were inspected likecattle or sheep, okay? before they were allowed to work, and they were fumigated. this is ddt by the way. it's a very powerful poison. totally illegal to use today,
but they're drenching them in this and many of them survivedthat to go on to work, imagine that, but becamevery ill later on developing cancer and other things, andnever compensated for it. and they faced discrimination. no dogs, no negroes, and no mexicans. but even beyond that,some people recognized what they did and the governor of oregon at that time said bravo,bravo, they saved our crops
and we are so thankful to them. so some people did get it. so, they also came, like my father did to the war, and the war effort. my father was, went tothe hawaii, tough duty, to be in world war iiand almost three quarters of mexicanos served andmexicanas served in world war ii. 13 received medal ofhonor, highest number of medal of honor winners in world war ii
history of any ethnic group. something to not. new mexico were sent to the battle, excuse me the battle of bataanwhich was an amazing battle. most of those people died,and when i was growing up i still heard about the battle of bataan. it was engrained and it washorrible, horrible, horrible where they were taken asprisoners and starved to death. and so you see thattexas also had entirely
spanish speaking battalion, a division, and guy gabaldonsinglehandedly, self taught, learned how to speak japanese and had over 1,500 japanese soldiers surrendered. he was called the piedpiper and singlehandedly, nobody else helped him, 1,500 soldiers without a shot being fired, and he marched them in one by one. they took him a weekto bring 1,500 soldiers
at this battle in saipon,saipan so a true hero. movie was made about him. how do people know? they didn't even let him, they didn't even put a hispanic face on that movie, but that movie is all about guy gabaldon. so, after world war ii we come back, you know they come back from the war tremendous history.
if you ever study history,learn and understand what happened after world war ii because these soldiers came back and were literally spit upon. one soldier tried to, youknow he died in world war ii. his wife tried to have himburied in the graveyard in texas and they wouldn't embalmhis body and they wouldn't have him buried in thegraveyard in the little town and that made nationalheadlines and national news
and the movie has justbeen come out about that. it's really incredible stuff,so it was a tough time, but our economy was growing,our community starts growing. this sign was in yakima, nowhites, no spanish or mexicans and you see that right there. so it wasn't really a huge welcome despite all that we'd given to the history and to theheritage of this country, and that's what we get?
but we did start ourcommunities in the 1950s and it was a good start. but it was a difficult start. mostly coming here isagricultural workers. mostly coming frommexican-americans coming from texas, from the valley of texas,new mexico, and colorado. but things changed. things changed drastically. and that change came in the 1960s
in the form of what we call el movimiento. the movement, the movefor equal rights okay? and that's when we took onthe term chicano and chicana. our term on our terms. we took on a holiday, our holiday on our date that we choose. we didn't we self-determination, and i have an algorithmthat i use in my class. self-determination plusactivism equals chicano okay?
and that's what we did. we became active. we said ya basta, no more. so great people like doloreshuerta which i showed you before and cesar chavezthere with bobby kennedy really helped changethings for farm workers and reies lopez tijerinain the area in new mexico for land rights trying toreclaim our rights to that. she was next to bobby kennedywhen he was assassinated.
so washington state is also your history. it's all of your history, doesn't matter what background you are. but washington statehistory, as far as latinos belongs to all of us. we're not claiming it just for us. we're claiming it because we believe in who we are, and what it is. i want you to be proud of your history.
that's why i'm here today. that's why i establishedthose two scholarships for this year and next year. and i, because i believe in you. i know that you are our future, and i know that this historythat we share together and that you've hopefullylearned a little bit about today, you'll take it and giveit to other people, but it's not just that we'vehad a long history here,
but we want to be included and that our contributions were significant, okay? so, without the spanishand mexican history i said this state would be part of canada. absolutely true. but there's other great things that we need to be noted for, okay? we're the first and fastest growing quote unquote minoritygroup, latinos and latinas
you know we make lots of babies. i said we're young and we're growing and we make lots ofbabies and here we come. and we are gonna make it happen. not only they are beautifulbabies, they are smart babies and you will be our next leaders, but you have to becomepolitically active, okay? you really have to become active, and i'm not telling youwhich policies and politics
and you have to become educated. we want you at centralwashington university. we want all of you at centralwashington university. we want to give you aworld class education and that you step forward,and if you're a dreamer, we're going to help you. if you're not a dreamer,we're going to help you okay? we want all of you to join our bandwagon. but, here we are.
we're hot and we're smart okay? that's who we are, and don't let anybody tell you that you don't have a history. don't let anybody tell youthat you are not significant. don't let anybody tellyou you can't do it. why? just like in the '60s si se puede. yes we can. our rallying cry in the '60s you know
i'm a brontosaurus mex, so what? i'm old, i'm graying, you know, y feo, but you know what? i believe in myself. i believe in my past,and i believe in you. and so, i'm gonna ask you for a favor. si se puede was our rallying cry, but we do something atthe end of our rallies for farm workers, we dothe farm worker clap.
does anybody know how to do that? okay it starts like this. (clapping) follow me. si se puede! thank you. question. - [voiceover] i enjoyed your presentation but you know it makes me very disappointed
in our washington state education system. as growing up, not learning about this here that we think we have what we know as our washington state history, and i prefer not to knowwhat i currently know with what i now know, that'smore of a blessing to know. - yeah we all should know that. let me tell you a little story. i'm going to interruptyou for a little bit.
dr. gamboa and i and my wife, we developed well it was mostly dr. gamboa and i, developed this project. 15 years ago, we wrote the entire history that you're seeing now. we made it into a video, at that time, converted it into a dvd but and we gave a six posterset in this beautiful box and we shipped it out.
we got funding through fred meyer. we took money out of ourown pockets to do this, for dr. gamboa and myself,everything was free from us and we helped make it happen. worked hours on this thing. beautiful posters printed,and give me this information and we gave this to allthe school districts and one of the saddest things i've ever seen in my life, after doing that,
i don't know how manypeople implemented it. i think very, very few. and one day i was atthe, what they call the when they discard thingsfrom a school district and they retire them theyput them into a place and i saw stacks of these thingssitting there, never used. just thrown away, and you can imagine how but i don't want ourhistory to be thrown away. i want you to put it in yourhead and your back pocket
and tell your friendsor family or neighbors when cinco de mayo comesuse it as an excuse saying, you know, this is why wecelebrate it, this is who we are. go ahead, was there somethingelse you wanted to say? - [voiceover] no, but i really did appreciate your presentation today. it's very nice, thank you. - thanks for enjoying and appreciating it. that, you know, thatreally makes me feel good,
but it's not about me, it's about you. and you're gonna helpchange that as students. you're gonna demand you know in the 1960s we stopped the school. we said okay, you hiremore hispanos, hispanas, latinos, latinas, mexicano, mexicanas. you hire them, we need faculty. we need great facultylike this gentleman here. we need great teachers,we need great staff,
we need great administratorslike the folks at this college who've gotten it. and you know we said, teach this to us because we want to know where we fit, but we want others to know. any other questions before we leave today? - [voiceover] okay, thank you everybody and let's thank dr. sanchez again.